Dr. Howard Gardner Theory of Multiple Intelligences presented in his book “Frames of Mind”. Before this theory, it was easy to measure intelligence with just one number on IQ test. Anybody could take an intelligence test IQ, which would be an objective proof of his intelligence for everybody else including employers and colleges. Dr. Howard Gardner graduated from Harvard University in Psycology major, he questioned intelligence as being that empirical. He suggested that intelligence can’t be measured by IQ test only. It’s combination of factors that represent separate entities, which do not stand close to each other. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory rose the debate on intelligence IQ test.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences defines intelligence as an ability to solve problems, or create products that are valued in at least one culture. After analyzing researches from cognitive and developmental psychology, anthropology, biology, psychometrics and psychology; Howard Gardner presents 8 different criteria of evaluating intelligence:
- Potential isolation by brain damage.
- Existence of savants, prodigies, and other exceptional individuals.
- An identifiable core set of operations–basic kind of information-processing operations or mechanisms that deal with one specific kind of input.
- A distinctive developmental history, along with a definite set of “end-state” performances.
- An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility.
- Support from experimental and psychological tasks.
- Support from psychometric findings.
- Susceptibility to encoding from a symbol system.
These factors, in their turn, affect each separate of the eight intelligences that Hardner came up with. I would like to discuss some more on the intelligences types.
The first type of intelligence is Linguistic. It helps individuals in their daily speech, in communication and use of the language. A good example of the Linguistically intelligent people would be poets. Also, if a person is able to create rhyme, a good storyteller, and is a fast language learner, he posses this type of intelligence.
Musical intelligence assists people in creating sound, communicating it and drawing the meaning out of it. Composers and musicians all exhibit this type of intelligence. Therefore, if a person is able to create music, whistle and sing something of his own, he is musically intelligent.
The most conservative type of intelligence, the one that we used to evaluate average knowledge level of a person is logical-mathematical intelligence. It allows people to use and understand abstract relations. Scientists, philosophers and mathematicians possess this intelligence. If a person enjoys analyzing and solving all types of problems and puzzles he is likely to have logical-mathematical intelligence.
Next comes Spatial intelligence that allows a person to perceive and transform visual and spatial data, and then to recreate visual information from memory. Good examples of that type of intelligent people are architects, engineers and sculptors. Generally people that appreciate working with charts and graphs are spatially intelligent.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence enables people to use different body parts to create something or solve problems. Athletes, surgeons, dancers, choreographers, and crafts people all use bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. Those who enjoy physical education, gym workouts, dancing, exhibit this kind of intelligence.
Another type of intelligence is Interpersonal intelligence that helps individuals to understand and analyze other people’s feelings and reasoning. Teachers, politicians, parents and psychologists must have it to be successful. So if you are good communicator and a sociable person you are likely to be intelligent in this sense.
Intrapersonal intelligence helps individuals to distinguish among their own feelings, to build accurate mental models of themselves, and to draw on these models to make decisions about their lives.
Naturalist intelligence helps people to differentiate classify, and use features of the environment. Farmers, gardeners, botanists, geologists, florists, and archaeologists all exhibit this intelligence, as do students who can name and describe the features of every make of car around them.