Everybody would agree that Modern Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, and even Geography, owes the great deal to the Arab mathematics. Just as George Sarton, the famous Harvard professor of history and science wrote in his famous book “Introduction to the History of Science”:
“From the second half of the eighth to the end of the eleventh century, Arabic was the scientific, the progressive language of mankind. When the West was sufficiently mature to feel the need of deeper knowledge, it turned its attention, first of all, not to the Greek sources, but to the Arabic ones.” (A al’Daffa p.65).
In this essay I would like to discuss media and communications issues, types of media research and base the discussion upon the two following sources: “Approaches To Media” by Newbold and “McQuail’s Mass Communications Theory” by McQuail. Before going into the depth of the discussion I would like to introduce these two authors and their works.
Chris Newbold is the professor of Mass Communication theory course; his major area of research interest is the exploration of film as the type of mass communication. According to him the interest presents not only the content of films but also their context. By the context he means the social, economic, historical and industrial environments of production and the various ways of perception, that could be both historical and contemporary because the film products remain with us for some time stored on video and DVD’s. The key areas of research interest for him are: early cinema to Eisenstein, Propaganda during the World War II, The 1960’s New Wave Movement, International films and others.
In our twenty first century mathematics found themselves at a crossroads. While new rules of number arrangements, logic and calculation are invented and studied; one significant front remains unchanged, new numbers. One of the most important inventions in mathematics was the creation of place value system of enumeration, in other words the base ten system of calculation that uses nine numerals and zero to represent the set of numbers from the lowest to the highest value. The Greeks did not develop this system, because the largest number value was the myriad for them neither did Chinese since those had the largest unit of enumeration equal ten thousand. It wasn’t also developed by the Arabs, though the system is often called Arabic numerals in Europe, where base ten system of calculation was first introduced in 13th century.
Some of the most famous authors: Norman Mailer, Jack London, and Ernest Hemingway – have turned to the subject of boxing in their works. Now one of the greatest novelists of our time, Joyce Carol Oates, has replenished this list.
Joyce Carol Oates became interest in boxing in her early childhood, he interest she inherited from her father. Joyce described her thoughts and feelings about boxing in a great essay “On Boxing”. This essay addresses the subject of boxing as a metaphor, spectacle, and dance; the history, lore, and allure sport. It also asks and discusses the question whether boxing should be banned, whether it should be covered closely by mass media and women’s role in boxing.
British film industry has never been booming, but during 1970’s it found itself in the most permanent crisis. The Oscar triumph in 1981 gave a hope and started a so-called British cinema renaissance, but it was still very questionable in British Cinema could live up to the expectations.
I would like to discuss crisis and the attempts of getting of productions slumps in different levels: production level, the number of movies produced, style level, how many of the international awards have been won, cinema attendance. Also the important factor to consider is the fact that British films are often financed by international investors and film-maker have to appeal to the audiences worldwide, so how many movies can we can consider to be truly British?