Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 579 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

The article is made up of many short paragraphs, briefly covering each of Kurzweil’s ideas. This is effective because he is trying to relay much information in a short article.

They are similar in that they both begin very slowly, but when they increase, they increase very rapidly (exponential growth).

Moore’s Law states that the technology is doubling in efficiency and intelligence every year. After 2019, “computer architectures” will grow exponentially instead of transistor features.

Because of the Law of Accelerating Returns, Kurzweil says a computer will be equivalent to the human brain by 2020, but that by 2055 a computer will be equivalent to all of the human brains in the world.

In this context, to “reverse-engineer” is to create artificially an organ that is already constructed and perfectly functional on its own. The idea of engineering an artificial brain would support his predictions of future artificial intelligence.

The tone is dynamic as the paragraph changes from formal academic prose to a conversational tone when he uses “I.”

Kurzweil claims that because of the rapid evolution of technology, beings of artificial intelligence will overtake humans because they can outsmart them. In addition, they will learn to procreate without human intervention. Despite his idea that artificial beings will take over the Earth, Kurzweil does not seem displeased with humanity’s obsession with technology.

Kurzweil attempts to persuade the reader by providing scientific methods and statistics, but the material seems to be too speculative to be realistic.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 580 -Answers

Vocabulary Strategy: Etymology

alchemy: Arabic al-kīmiyā’ < al the + kīmiyā’ branch of medieval science whose goal was the transmutation of baser metals into gold; algebra: Arabic al-jabr < al the + jabr restoration (of anything which is missing, lost, out of place, or lacking); geometry: ancient Greek γεωμετρία science of measuring; hexagon: Greek ἑξάγωνον, neuter singular of ἑξάγωνος six-cornered; isoceles: Greek ἰσοσκελής equal-legged; nadir: Arabic naẓīr opposite to, over against; trigonometry: Greek τρίγωνον triangle + -μετρία -metry; zenith: Arabic samt , in samt ar-rās lit. way or path over the head

The meaning of the root word connects to the current meaning in a direct way, though it has become more specific over time. For example: zenith, which comes from the Arabic for ‘path overhead’ and currently means the spot directly overhead. It has moved from the general path above, to the specific location. Other terms do the same.

Knowing the etymology of words makes the meaning more complex, giving it layers of intention. If you know that a term originates in a specific language and culture, you can make connections from its past meaning to its current. The etymology of words helps direct understanding. I was surprised by the composition of algebra, or Arabic for al+jabr, which means restoration. Currently it means only the science of algebra, but it was interesting to find out its general use in Arabic.

Critical Vocabulary

the brain has many different parts which must all function simultaneously to create the desired outcome.

The technology was developing and expensive so people did not have access to them.

It. Is an estimate based on only the information currently known, which could change.

it is mathematic and requires specific steps.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 585 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

The speaker gives commands which explain whether the reader is the correct audience. It is a message from the text, or an interior method of technology.

These people are the pessimists of society. The optimists are labeled and given dialogue in line 25. The lack of action in their lives creates suspense for them.

This is regarding the concept of copyrights and patents. Once all the good ideas are claimed, human beings find themselves restless and feeling useless. It introduces the idea that there is a capacity to “genius” and intellectuality.

The speaker suggests that people born in the 20th century are the last generation of mortal human beings. He or she admits that they tried to restore that generation to youth but it failed.

Robin Chen attempted to become immortal. She was the last human being on Earth. The speaker’s tone is ironic because he is jealous of Chen’s ability to die and angry that she had such a positive view of the world he despises.

It is ironic because she idealizes their world and is jealous of their immortality and simulation, but after her death they are jealous that she can die and experienced a physical Earth.

Humans desire immortality so they join a virtual existence. It is a “time of drama” because of intellectual innovation, which has now plateaued and is nonexistent.

It is part of the simulation, which does not include animals or plants from Earth.

The theme of this story is that humans always want what they don’t have. Life is valuable because it is fleeting. Technology can take over humanity.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 594 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

He says they are factors, which means they may or may not contribute to the destruction of each individual civilization. This creates a frame by separating different causes; all may contribute or only one.

Societies that did not fail adapted; they were willing to change. It is also necessary to note that successful civilizations had kings/ leaders that did not ignore the problems of the society despite their life of privilege.

This is effective because he shows qualities of failed societies then of successful ones, and shows how America is acting like people of failed societies so it is necessary for the country’s citizens to change their perspective and not isolate themselves by social class. His argument ends with a call to action.

His call to action in the last paragraph ends with a question, which is important because it makes the reader think about how the work applies to his or her life. He argues that we as a society have the ability to predict problems and prevent them because we know World History.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 595 -Answers

Vocabulary Strategy: Patterns of Word Change

Covered, uncover, undercover, recover, discover

React, action, activate, deactivate, acting

Republic, publication,

Movement, remove, unmoved, mover

Distrust, untrustworthy, trusting, trusted

Critical Vocabulary

No, because it leads to deforestation which is harmful to the environment.

It might face internal conflicts about how to govern, threats from enemies, and a lack of resources.

Economic stability and prosperity can lead to deforestation because citizens have the time and money to build structures using the timber from trees.

An appropriate response would be to face the situation head on, and work together to develop strategies to fix the problem or fight the threat.

Yes, this would mean that my friend has become ill.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 600 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

Metallic implies a screeching, artificial sound like a machine. The word “experiment” is a scientific term. Conducting implies that the parents have control, and that something is being manipulated. The diction in the first stanza labels the poem as science fiction.

5pm is the end of afternoon and the beginning of evening, which correlates with the author’s theme of oncoming death (night/ darkness).

The lungs remind the reader that the speaker is annoyed by the sound the brother and sister are creating, though their mother is proud that they are strong and healthy children. Pink indicates that the lungs are healthy.

The speaker suggests that the screams of the children will kill them, which is clear through her reference to Elijah and mention of heaven. The sky is blue on Earth, but the speaker implies that it would be red as the characters ascend (like viewing the sunset), then gold near the sun and black as the sky which holds the stars. This correlates with the common Christian idea that heaven is above the Earth, somewhere in the stars.

The speaker hopes for information about the afterlife. Her mention of a furnace alludes to the possibility of hell. The speaker is anxious to know what lies ahead, and hates that the living do not know but live their lives wondering/ speculating.

If the stereo is playing with the “shuffle” setting, the speaker is impatient because he/she cannot listen to one song/ genre. It also shows that the stereo is what humans listen to, but this is insignificant in comparison with the possibilities of the afterlife.

It suggests that the kids are animalistic or unintelligent. They are unprepared for what lies ahead, like the apes before the journey.

Performance Task

screams, cries, wind, racket, stereo, chopping, hiccough

Screams are associated with pain. Cries; sadness. Wind; quiet, soft, nature. Racket; busy, obnoxious. Stereo: loud, songs, happy. Chopping: repetitive. Hiccough: annoying, natural, surprising.

These sounds and their connotations indicate the unhappiness and bustle (impatience) of the speaker’s life and contrast his/ her wish for constancy and knowledge.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 394 -Answers

Analyzing the Text and Media

He describes them as metaphorically cursed and in such a poor condition as would have horrified their original owners and residents. His descriptive, solemn rhetoric lays out what tenement life was like in a calm but devastating manner.

He could have used graphs.

They died at much higher rates than did children living in single tenements. Unfortunately, a photograph of a single sick child probably would not have had as much impact as tables filled with numbers related to dead children would. Numbers may be thought to offer more solid “proof.”

They offer visual proof of how dirty and crowded the tenements were. Additionally, the faces of their inhabitants look absolutely exhausted and even sad, reflecting their hard lives.

Here he is saying that Americans should focus on their own people first, rather than spending so much time, effort, and money trying to improve life for inhabitants of faraway places while their own cities are in deplorable condition.

One pro is that it provides multiple points of view. One con is that the vast amount of information presented may feel overwhelming or difficult to sift through effectively.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 566 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

The court holds that the petitioners were not disruptive, that freedom of speech is available to students and teachers, and that regulations barring free speech without proof that the speech will actually disrupt school discipline is unconstitutional. The amendments at stake here are the 1st and 4th.

He says that the apprehension of a disturbance is not enough to warrant the banning of free speech. He says that by their very nature, schools are places in which many ideas are exchanged – and, he adds, some of these ideas will doubtless cause disruption of their own. Here, he is saying that there is no difference between the armbands and other forms of speech that occur on school grounds and so no rule should be made regarding armbands.

Pure speech refers to the spoken or written word. (In contrast, symbolic speech would be something that isn’t uttered or written down, such as the wearing of an armband.)

Justice Fortas believes that judges should have the right to decide whether a law is unconstitutional or not, similar to the way that the school officials believe they have the right to decide that black armbands denouncing the war are not permitted but buttons in support of political campaigns are.

Justice Black brings up cases which do not relate to schoolchildren and do not use the “reasonableness test,” arguing that previous examples given by other Justices are invalid.

Justice Black worries that the Court is making decisions for schools when school officials know what is best for their schools because they work there on a daily basis. He claims that previous cases are not applicable in this situation and that children and teachers have a different relationship. Children are not mature adults so they do not have the same rights/ freedoms.

Justice Fortas brings up Burnside v. Byars, which he quotes as the law to determine the outcome of this case. Similarly, Justice Black discusses Cox v. Louisiana, which he argues has already disproven the idea that anyone can say whatever they want at any time because of the First Amendment Right to Free Speech.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 399 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

The narrator is omniscient. Throughout the story, readers learn that the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of Richards, Louise, and Brently. The story does, however, mostly focus on Louise.

Josephine and Richards think Louise will be devastated. Her initial reaction is not intended to be ironic.

She is relieved to have the rest of her life to herself and celebrates all alone in that room. The other characters would be shocked, appalled, and confused.

It suggests that she felt trapped in the confines and expectations of marriage.

These images include treetops and clouds – a nature scene. Such calm and familiar imagery makes the reader feel sympathetic to Louise’s situation.

It characterizes her as a woman satisfied with the outcome of that day, euphoric about life’s new possibilities and freedom.

Louise expects him to be dead, but he is in fact not dead. It would not be ironic if he were actually dead because that is what the characters and readers already expect.

It is an example of dramatic irony because, while the other characters (particularly the doctors who examined her) believe her joy was caused by the sight of her still-living husband, the readers know that “joy” refers to her elation at his supposed death and her resultant freedom.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 567 -Answers

Critical Vocabulary

‘Principled’ is a good alternative to ‘scrupulous’ because they both invoke a sense of being firm in one’s viewpoint.

‘Budding’ is a good alternative to ‘nascent’ because of the imagery associated with growth (in this case a ‘growing rebellion’).

‘Argumentative’ might be a good alternative to ‘disputatious’ because of the way it suggests the normalization of ‘disputes’ (as in ‘disputatious’) without necessarily implying violence.

In this case, ‘claims’ might be a good alternative to ‘purports’ because both relate to the question of perception.

A classroom would be considered an enclave as defined on page 554, because a classroom is a small part of a whole school.

That student is a bully, not a friend, because of the implication that to arrogate something is “unjust” page 558.

He strongly opposes it, because to disclaim something is to separate oneself from it.

Vocabulary Strategy: Legal Terminology

Stare decisis is latin and indicates that previous decisions should be used to determine the outcome of a particular case.

Habeas corpus is latin. “Corpus” suggests body, and the phrase means that someone must enter the court in person.

Amicus curiae is latin and indicates a person who can be useful to the court because they are unbiased.

Voir dire is of French origin and means to tell the truth.

Ex parte is latin and suggests a side.

In camera is latin and suggests that a person or case is separated from the main court, perhaps visiting a judge privately.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 400 -Answers

Vocabulary Strategy: Word Collocations

Unsolved mystery Adjective. +. Noun. A situation or occurrence that there is no explanation for at this point. “Whether or not Bigfoot actually exists is an unsolved mystery.”

Piercing cry. Adjective. +. Noun. A sudden, sharp wailing, as if in pain.”I gav a piercing cry when I hit my shin on the table .”

Critical Vocabulary

Abandonment because they both mean acting without care.

Illumination because they both mean that something is becoming clear.

Vacant because they both mean that’s there is empty space or nothing “there.”

Composed because they both mean in control of the situation.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 404 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

She describes “his sullen face” and what she supposes is his lip. She revises her initial statement after further observing and thinking about the fish.

The fish hooks are trophies from his past victories against other fishers who tried to catch him.

It is the fish’s victory. The enemies are the fishers, including the narrator.

The references to “medals” and “a five-haired beard of wisdom” depict the fish as a symbol of longevity and cunning intelligence. The rainbow at the end symbolizes the beauty of nature.

The narrator feels respect for the fish after realizing how much he has endured. The fish, like the dog, is expertly adapted for survival.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 435 -Answers

Analyzing the Text

Dexter’s family, while not the richest in the area, is still fairly well-to-do.

Dexter dreams of a better and more exciting life among the rich. This choice on the part of Fitzgerald foreshadows what will happen in Dexter’s adult life.

He is shocked by how much he is attracted to the young Judy and wants to be her equal, rather than serving her.

His winter dreams are about beauty, success, and wealth. They shape Dexter’s decision to pursue Judy and eventually move to the East Coast.

She is used to getting her way through beauty and charm and has a bunch of male admirers/suitors. Although she is beautiful on the outside, internally she is troubled.

He probably suspected as much. The clues can be found on lines 660-664, when he feels a mixture of emotions including anger and hatred at his complicated relationship with Judy.

He laughs when with Devlin, but as soon as the other man leaves he begins to weep. “There was something in me, but now that thing is gone” means that he could cling to the image of Judy’s beauty but now that it no longer exists, it is only a memory. That era of his life is gone.

He is motivated to succeed by the promise of money and the possibility of a future with a beautiful woman such as Judy. He deserves some sympathy, since Judy broke his heart numerous times, but also merits criticism since it would seem that he doesn’t care about her personality but only her beauty. He loved her, but it was a shallow love.

He has lost the reason for his motivation to succeed. Ever since he was a young boy and saw Judy for the first time, he wanted to be part of that beautiful and wealthy life. He worked hard to succeed and make a lot of money, which allowed him to socialize with a higher class than the one he was born into. Now that her beauty is no more, though, his primary motivation to reach and maintain that way of life is gone.

Collections: Grade 11-page Pg. 436 -Answers

Vocabulary Strategy: Precise Usage

blatantly: brazenly, plainly, unabashedly; precarious: risky, uncertain, unreliable; flux: change. fluidity, motion; precipitate: trigger, dispatch, fling; petulance: bitterness; mundane: banal, everyday, commonplace; turbulence: turmoil, commotion, frenzy; plaintive: sorrowful, melancholy, sad

She blatantly ignored him. The bird perched precariously on the branch. The constant flux of dancers made her dizzy. The food precipitated them into a food coma. Her petulance annoyed him. The mundane conversation bored him. The turbulent waters made them sick. The plaintive lullaby made him cry.

She brazenly ignored him. The bird perched riskily on the branch. The constant motion of the dancers made her dizzy. The food dispatched them into a food coma. Her bitterness annoyed him. The banal conversation bored him. The water’s frenzy made them sick. The melancholy lullaby made him cry.